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UPSC MAINS 2019 ESSAY PAPER ANALYSIS, QUESTIONS CAME IN MAINS 2019 FROM EDEN IAS STEPS- DAILY MAINS ANSWER WRITING PRACTICE COURSE. Civil Services Examination is one of the most prestigious competition in India well known for its diversity of syllabus and the standard of questions asked in the examination. Here we are going to talk about Essay Paper of UPSC MAINS 2019 held on 20th Sept 2019. As per our Mains appearing students, the question paper was neither very tough nor easy… A moderated kind of paper holding a dominance of Philosophical Essays to trick aspirants in section A of the question paper e.g.; SECTION-A Essay no 1- WISDOM FINDS TRUTH. Essay no 2- VALUES ARE NOT WHAT HUMANITY IS, BUT WHAT HUMINATY OUGHT TO BE. Essay no 3- BEST FOR AN INDIVIDUAL IS NOT NECESSARILY BEST FOR THE SOCIETY. Essay no 4- COURAGE TO ACCEPT AND DEDICATION TO IMPROVE ARE TWO KEYS TO SUCCESS. SECTION- B This part was poured with different dimensions and was inclined to current issues of National and International importance. And one can say that, this section was a bit relieving for students as compared to section A. Let’s check all probable dimensions… Essay no 5- SOUTH ASIAN SOCIETIES ARE WOVEN NOT AROUND THE STATE BUT AROUND THEIR PLURAL CULTURES AND PLURAL IDENTITIES. DIMENSIONS • Culture & Diversity • International relations. • Regional Identities. Etc… Essay no 6- NEGLECT OF PRIMARY HEALTH CARE AND EDUCATION IN INDIA ARE REASONS FOR BACKWARDNESS DIMENSIONS • Primary Health care. • Education. • Governance at large. • Indian society. Essay no 7- BIASED MEDIA IS A REAL THREAT TO INDIAN DEMOCRACY. DIMENSIONS • Media Ethics (Paid News, Sensationlization of news, Public opinion etc.…) • Democratic values. • Freedom of speech and expression. • Rights v/s Responsibilities etc.…. Essay no 8- RISE OF ARTIFICIAL INTELLIGENCE; THE THREAT OF JOBLESS FUTURE OR BETTER JOB OPPORTUNITIES THROUGH RESKILLING AND UPSKILLING. DIMENSIONS • Evolving Science & Technology. • Artificial Intelligence. • Labour Market dynamics. • Growth with Technology etc.… HOW TO CHOOSE AN ESSAY??? Choosing an Essay topic is the most important STEP in Essay writing, which comes from a regular practice, I must say at least one essay per week. (For which you can check STEPS- A daily mains answer writing practice course by EDEN IAS | where you get one essay per week and evaluation within 72 hrs..) Before choosing an essay following points should be kept in mind… • Familiarity with keywords in the topic helps you to broaden your dimensions. • Choose one such topic for which you are rich with content. (Prefer topics associated with current issues.) • Prejudices against philosophical topics needs to be avoided. (There are many examples of toppers scoring high writing philosophical essays.) • Selecting a topic on which you can write relevant quotes or phrases. • Try to choose a diverse topic so that you are not short of dimensions and content. • Avoid choosing similar topics for both the essays. • Aspirants should not devote more than 5 minutes in choosing topics. STRUCTURING AN ESSAY??? “The key to a good story structure is to write a great beginning and a great ending and keep them close together!!” Some points to keep in mind structuring an Essay in UPSC / IAS Exam… • UPSC never demand for flowery language or tough vocabulary to express your essay. • Don’t try to make your essay a comprehensive one, instead you can focus on four to five dimensions and explain them properly. (Because no essay can be comprehensive in totality.) • There are diverse ways of writing an essay, don’t confined yourself to any particular model. (People try acronyms or try to conclude through general studies papers.) • The first and foremost task to start an essay is to dedicate you 15 to 20 mins at least to frame a rough work. • It is very important to stick to the topic throughout the essay with a flow that interlinks all your ideas. • How you begin and where you end up to is the most important aspect of your essay as it keeps your examiner in a rhythm while evaluating your paper. • Don’t repeat or overfeed any particular point. • Try to quote examples while expressing your ideas which gives support to your thoughts. There are three basic parts of an essay; • Introduction. (80 – 120 words.) • Main Body of the Essay. (700 – 800 words) • Conclusion. (100 – 150 words) A sample approach…. INTRODUCTION You can start your essay with a quote or a story or a comparison or some religious shloka etc.…. Briefly write your position and name the dimension which you are going to cover in your essay. MAIN BODY We would suggest you to write main body in following ways... • Cover different dimensions like POLITICAL, ECONOMIC, SOCIAL, CULTURAL, RELIGIOUS, ENVIRONMENTAL, LEGAL, INTERNATIONAL, ETHICAL etc… (Form your own acronyms to memorize them.) • Another approach could be, to start with PAST, taking it to PRESENT and concluding with FUTURE. CONCLUSION We can conclude the essay on following thoughts…. • CONSTITUTIONAL PROVISIONS such as FUNDAMENTAL RIGHTS, DPSPs, FUNDAMENTAL DUTIES etc…. • SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT GOALS, • Talk about INTERNATIONAL COOPERATION. • Add words of enlightened people or end with a positive story. NOW WE WILL DISCUSS TWO ESSAYS ONE FROM EACH SECTIONS OF UPSC CSE MAINS 2019 ESSAY 4 “COURAGE TO ACCEPT AND DEDICATION TO IMPROVE ARE TWO KEYS TO SUCCESS” STEP 1 – Quote Kites rise highest against the wind – not with it.!! - Winston Churchil. STEP 2 – Brief the statement of the topic. (30 – 40 words) The world belongs to those who have courage to accept their flaws and to move on with a rejoiced energy with a reformed personality keeping the future endeavors in their minds…. STEP 3 – Now start with various dimensions Political- For example in Europe earlier there used to be absolute monarchies then in the time of enlightenment people started realizing the flaws of authoritarian rule. As a result of which they started protesting against the State, the of their dedicated efforts they could win rights and democracy thereafter. (Elaborate further…) Economic- Slavery and serfdom were prevalent in North America and the leaders of that time realized flaws in such system and with their dedicated efforts they could abolish such system. As a result of which capitalism came into picture. Capitalism too had its short coming which came to surface during great depression. Therefore, KEYNES came up with a proposal of role of government in market. (Elaborate further….). SOCIAL – Untouchability and caste system were rigidly prevalent in Indian society so the socio-religious reformers like RAJARAM MOHAN ROY, DAYANAND SARASWATI etc.… took these issues up in even times when conservative elements were continuously targeting their reforms. Such reforms were later part of Indian freedom struggle. After independence untouchability was constitutionally abolished and caste-based discrimination were also eradicated. (Elaborate further…) RELIGIOUS – As per Hindu mythology when Devtas and Asuras were fighting and Devtas were losing, Then Devatas realized that they should appoint someone as their leader (INDRA) so that can form an organized battle against Asuras. After such realization they could defeat Asuras. When Jew religion became conservative Jesus Christ gave a hope of change to people and hence Christianity came into picture after facing lots of hurdles ahead of conservative thoughts. Now when catholic Christians became conservative, protestants gave another window of liberty to people. (Elaborate further…) “QUOTING EXAMPLES”. 1. Ashoka after kalinga war was changed his way of expansion from WAR to DHAMMA. After Dhamma he became a true emperor of India. 2. Learning from 1857 debacle leaders of that time analyzed that an organized effort is required to challenge British might. Hence Indian national Congress came up…. 3. ISRO realized that it had limited resources to finance MARS MISSION for India, so they put dedicated efforts to make project successful. And which lead to one of the most cost efficient and productive Mission. (Add further examples…) CONCLUSION… Various issues of time can be resolved such as… 1. Climate change 2. Conservation of wildlife 3. Migration crisis and civil wars 4. Women empowerment 5. Extremism etc… Elaborate these points and end with a decent quote. ESSAY - 6 “NEGLECT OF PRIMARY HEALTH CARE AND EDUCATION IN INDIA ARE REASONS FOR ITS BACKWARDNESS” STEP 1 – Start with a story. Raju and Mohit belong to two extreme different socio- economic backgrounds. Raju being a son of a domestic help in Mohit’s house and Mohit’s father is an industrialist. But as friendship has no boundaries, they are very close to each other. Rohit is blessed to have all good from his childhood- best health care, education, etc… in contrast Raju’s condition is all together opposite. They grew together but now Mohit has his own start up in software industry and he is flourishing well. But Raju is still struggling for livelihood after graduating from a govt college. This story clearly justifies the topic that lack of “primary health care and education are responsible for India’s backwardness” STEP 2 – Briefing dimensions of the essay. In this essay first we will discuss importance of primary health care and education in development of a Nation. Then we will see how it is the reason for backwardness of India. After that we will have a look at facts and figures about primary health care and education in India. Then shift to the reasons for neglect of primary health care and education. Now we will count on government efforts addressing these issues. Later we will discuss some best practices around the world supporting these areas. And this would lead to conclusion of the essay. STEP 3 – Now start with various dimensions 1. Primary Health care & Education: Contribution in development. (Explain with 4 -5 points and examples) 2. Poor primary health care & education: Indication of backwardness. (Explain with 4 -5 points and examples) 3. Facts and figures: A brief look. (Quote data from govt. sources, surveys etc.…) 4. Neglect of primary health care and education: Primary reasons. 5. Government efforts: Brief analysis. 6. Best international practices: A Learning experience. (Quote Nordic countries, Japan etc) CONCLUSION: ROAD TO IMPROVEMENT 1. Constitution – Relate to Article 21, 21(a), DPSPs and Fundamental duties. 2. SDGs – For example SDG 3 & 4. 3. Declarations on primary health care. Eg- Astana declaration. 4. International cooperation in education. Eg- GIAN. 5. End with a quote or a phrase or a shloka. This can be possible help to write an essay. But most important is… Every student should focus on regular practice if they want to score good in essay. EDEN IAS PROVIDES A DAILY MAINS ANSWER WRITING COURSE KNOWN AS STEPS. We are proud to announce that there are 3 to 4 questions in essay are from our program STEPS. We are going to provide some links to give reference to those questions. All the best!!!

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NATIONAL REGISTER OF CITIZENS (NRC) - EDEN IAS CURRENT AFFAIRS FOR UPSC More than 19 lakh of the 3.29 crore applicants in Assam were left out of the final National Register of Citizens (NRC) that was published on 31st of August, 2019 to conclude a Supreme Court-monitored exercise that took five years and Rs. 1, 220 crore. This led to protests about an uncertain future of such a large number of people. The government, however, has allayed all such fears, saying no person whose name is not there in the final list will be detained till he / she exhausts all legal remedies. The excluded people have about 120 days to appeal against their exclusion to the foreigner tribunals. To speed up the process 200 new tribunals have been made functional in addition to the already existing. If they are not satisfied with the tribunals, people can also move to high court and the Supreme Court for redressal. The NRC exercise is the biggest in India, carried out under the supervision of the Supreme Court to weed out illegal immigrants, as well as their descendants, settled illegally in India. WHAT IS NRC? The National Register of Citizens (NRC) is the register containing details of all Indian citizens. After conducting the Census of 1951, the National Register of Citizens (NRC) was prepared by recording particulars of all the persons enumerated during the 1951 Census. After the conduct of the Census of 1951, a National Register of Citizens (NRC) was prepared in respect of each village showing the houses or holdings in a serial order and indicating against each house or holding the number and names of persons staying therein, and in respect of each individual, the father’s name/mother’s name or husband’s name, nationality, sex, age, marital status, educational qualification, means of livelihood or occupation and visible identification mark. This was done by copying out in registers the particulars recorded during the Census done in 1951. This NRC was prepared under a directive from the Ministry of Home affairs (MHA). These registers covered each and every person enumerated during the Census of 1951 and were kept in the offices of Deputy Commissioners and Sub Divisional Officers according to instructions issued by the Government of India in 1951. Later these registers were transferred to the Police in the early 1960s. NRC Updation National Register of Citizens (NRC) means the register containing the names of Indian citizens. NRC updation basically means the process of enlisting the names of citizens based on Electoral Rolls up to 1971 and 1951 NRC. In other words National Register of Citizens (NRC) updation basically means the process of enlisting the names of those persons (or their descendants) whose names appear in any of the Electoral Rolls up to 1971, 1951 NRC or any of the admissible documents stipulated. The NRC will be updated as per the provisions of The Citizenship Act, 1955 and The Citizenship (Registration of Citizens and Issue of National Identity Cards) Rules, 2003. As such, eligibility for inclusion in updated NRC shall be determined based on the NRC, 1951, Electoral Rolls up to the midnight of 24th March, 1971 and in their absence the list of admissible documents issued up to midnight of 24th March, 1971. FOR FULL ARTICLE CLICK ON THE LINK

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UNIVERSAL BASIC INCOME - EDEN IAS CURRENT AFFAIRS FOR UPSC Sikkim Democratic Front (SDF) had included Universal Basic Income (UBI) in its manifesto for the assembly and Lok Sabha elections, according to a report by The Indian Express. The state had already begun the process of introducing the unconditional direct cash transfer scheme and planning to implement the same by 2022. It could have become the first state in India to implement UBI. The 2017 Economic Survey had advocated implementation of UBI as an alternative to the various social welfare schemes in an effort to reduce poverty. The Survey said, “UBI is a powerful idea whose time even if not ripe for implementation, is ripe for serious discussion.” However, Late Finance Minister Arun Jaitley in June 2017 said the scheme as proposed in the Economic Survey will not be feasible in today’s India. UBI is premised on the idea that a just society needs to guarantee to each individual a minimum income which they can count on, and which provides the necessary material foundation for a life with access to basic goods and a life of dignity. What Is Universal Basic Income? A basic income is a regular, periodic cash payment delivered unconditionally to all citizens on an individual basis, without the requirement of work or willingness to work. UBI has three components: universality (all citizens included), unconditionality (no prior condition), and agency (by providing support in the form of cash transfers to respect, not dictate, recipients’ choices). Universal Basic Income (UBI) is a programme for providing all citizens of a country or other geographic area/state with a given sum of money, regardless of their income, resources or employment status. The main idea behind UBI is to prevent or reduce poverty and increase equality among citizens. The essential principle behind Universal basic income is the idea that all citizens are entitled to a livable income, irrespective of the circumstances they’re born in. The idea of a universal basic income has gained currency in the West because of the threat of automation-induced job losses. In India, the idea first gained currency as a solution to chronic poverty and government’s failure to effectively target subsidies towards the poor The broad features of such schemes are: Payments at periodic regular intervals (not one-off grants), Payments in cash (not food vouchers or service coupons), Payments to individuals, Universality Rationale behind UBI The average Indian family’s monthly income in 1938 was Rs 25. Today, the average Indian family’s monthly income is roughly Rs 50, 000, a 2, 000 times increase since 1938. The poorest 10% of Indian families earn a mere Rs 5, 000 a month. 25 million Indian families earn just a tenth of what the average Indian family earns. And, 50 million households earn just a fifth of the average Indian family. While the Indian economy continues to grow, the much touted trickle down impact of economic development seems elusive to the poorer sections of our society. There is a real risk of the bottom quarter of Indian families being left behind completely. The plan to ensure a basic minimum standard of living for every Indian family that was envisaged by Nehru and Bose in 1938 is applicable even today. FOR FULL ARTICLE CLICK ON THE LINK

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REDISCOVERING DEVELOPMENT BANKS - EDEN IAS CURRENT AFFAIRS FOR UPSC Recently the Finance Minister Nirmala Sitharaman while, announcing a slew of measures to boost the economy and financial market sentiments, had an interesting idea. It was about setting up a development bank. Ms. Sitharaman said: “In order to improve access to long-term finance, it is proposed to establish an organisation to provide credit enhancement for infrastructure and housing projects, particularly in the context of India now not having a development bank and also for the need for us to have an institutional mechanism. So, this will enhance debt flow toward such projects.” The announcement could have far-reaching implications for India’s financial system. What are Development Banks? Development banks are financial institutions that provide long-term credit for capital-intensive investments spread over a long period and yielding low rates of return, such as urban infrastructure, mining and heavy industry, and irrigation systems. Such banks often lend at low and stable rates of interest to promote long-term investments with considerable social benefits. Development banks are also known as term-lending institutions or development finance institutions. To lend for long term, development banks require correspondingly long-term sources of finance, usually obtained by issuing long-dated securities in capital market, subscribed by long-term savings institutions such as pension and life insurance funds and post office deposits. Considering the social benefits of such investments, and uncertainties associated with them, development banks are often supported by governments or international institutions. Such support can be in the form of tax incentives and administrative mandates for private sector banks and financial institutions to invest in securities issued by development banks. Development banks are different from commercial banks which mobilise short- to medium-term deposits and lend for similar maturities to avoid a maturity mismatch — a potential cause for a bank’s liquidity and solvency. The capital market complements commercial banks in providing long-term finance. They are together termed as the Anglo-Saxon financial system. Industrial Development Banks They include for example. Industrial Finance Corporation of India (IFCI), Industrial Development Bank of India (IDBI), and Small Industries Development Bank of India (SIDBI). Industrial Finance Corporation of India (IFCI) The IFCI was the first specialised financial institution set up in India to provide term finance to large industries in India. It was established on 1st July, 1948 under the Industrial Finance Corporation Act of 1948. Objectives of IFCI The main objective of IFCI is to provide medium and long term financial assistance to large scale industrial undertakings, particularly when ordinary bank accommodation does not suit the undertaking or finance cannot be profitably raised by it from the issue of shares. FOR FULL ARTICLE CLICK ON THE LINK

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POLICE REFORMS IN INDIA - EDEN IAS CURRENT AFFAIRS FOR UPSC According to Black’s law dictionary, Police is the function of that branch of the administrative machinery of government which is charged with the preservation of public order and tranquility, the promotion of the public health, safety, and morals, and the prevention, detection, and punishment of crimes. The primary role of Police Forces is to Uphold and enforce laws. Investigate crimes. Ensure security for people and property. Police Forces generally have two arms: Civil and Armed police. The Civil Police is responsible for day-to-day law and order and crime control. Armed Police is kept in reserve, till additional support is required in situations like riots. Under the Indian Constitution, police is a subject governed by the states. Therefore, each of the 29 states have their own police forces. The centre is also allowed to maintain its own police forces to assist the states. Thus, it maintains central police forces and some other police organizations for specialised tasks such as intelligence gathering, investigation, research and recordkeeping, and training. The present Indian police system is largely based on Police act of 1861. After independence some states came out with their own police acts, for example Bombay Police Act, 1951, Kerala police act 1960, Delhi police act 1978. States also have their police manuals detailing how police of the state is organised, their roles and responsibilities, records that must be maintained, etc. There has been a rise of public demand for an efficient, accountable and people-centric police that steadfastly upholds the Rule of Law in all situations. Since independence, the National Police Commission as well as multiple expert committees have submitted successive reports recommending extensive reforms in the Police. These recommendations have mostly remained unimplemented. Outstanding Issues with the Police in India Huge Vacancies Currently there are significant vacancies within the state police forces and some of the central armed police forces. As of January 2016, the total sanctioned strength of state police forces across India was 22, 80, 691, with 24% vacancies (i.e. 5, 49, 025 vacancies). Vacancies have been around 24%-25% in state police forces since 2009. States with the highest vacancies were Uttar Pradesh (50%), Karnataka (36%), West Bengal (33%), Gujarat (32%) and Haryana (31%). Vacancies in the central police forces have been in the range of 6%-14% since 2007. Sashastra Seema Bal (18%), Central Industrial Security Force (10%), Indo-Tibetan Border Police (9%) and National Security Guards (8%) had relatively high vacancies. FOR FULL ARTICLE CLICK ON THE LINK

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AMAZON FIRE - EDEN IAS CURRENT AFFAIRS FOR UPSC The world’s largest forest, the Amazon is on fire triggering global concerns over the forest also known as the “lungs of the planet”. Brazil has declared a state of emergency in the region while catastrophic fires spread to neighbouring Bolivia. More than 9, 500 new forest fires have been spotted by Brazil’s National Institute for Space Research in just the last two weeks…prompting international alarm and calling for urgent action. According to forest experts, Amazon almost never burns on its own and the increase in fires this year has been quite dramatic. The region is usually too wet to ignite, so the vast majority of fires are largely believed to be caused by humans. Amazon Rainforest The Amazon rainforest is a moist broadleaf tropical rainforest in the Amazon biome that covers most of the Amazon basin of South America. The majority of the forest is contained within Brazil, with 60% of the rainforest, followed by Peru with 13%, Colombia with 10%, and with minor amounts in Venezuela, Ecuador, Bolivia, Guyana, Suriname and France (French Guiana). The Amazon rainforest stretches across 5.5 million square kilometers, an area far larger than the EU. Importance of the Amazon forests for the global community: The enormous Amazon River, with all its tributaries, contains 20 per cent of the world’s flowing freshwater. The Amazon rain forests are the lungs of our planet which produces 20% of our oxygen. Precipitation: Through transpiration, the Amazon rainforest is responsible for creating 50-75 percent of its own precipitation. But its impact extends well beyond the Amazon Basin, with Amazon rainfall and rivers feeding regions that generate 70 percent of South America’s GDP. Models indicate that moisture from the Amazon influences rainfall as far away as the Western United States and Central America. Carbon storage: The 390 billion trees across the Amazon rainforest locks up massive amounts of carbon in their leaves, branches, and trunks. A 2007 study published in Global Change Biology estimated the forest stores some 86 billion tons of carbon or more than a third of all carbon stored by tropical forests worldwide. Biodiversity: Though the Amazon covers only four per cent of the earth’s surface, the Amazon is home to more species of plants and animals than any other terrestrial ecosystem on the planet, perhaps 30 percent of the world’s species are found there. Besides their intrinsic value as living organisms, these species have potential value to humans in the form of medicine, food, and other products. Local benefits: Within the Amazon Basin, tens of millions of people depend on services afforded by the forest. Rivers are the main vectors for transportation, while logging and collection of non-timber forest products are major industries in many cities, towns, and villages. The rainforest helps suppress but not completely eliminate the risk of fire, in addition to reducing air pollution. Fish in Amazon tributaries are a huge source of protein in the region. Annual floods replenish nutrients in floodplain areas used for agriculture. FOR FULL ARTICLE CLICK ON THE LINK

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AFRICAN CONTINENTAL FREE TRADE AREA - EDEN IAS CURRENT AFFAIRS FOR UPSC The vision of “pan-Africanism” and “collective self-reliance” has long been an integral component of attempts by African leaders and policymakers to find Africa-driven solutions to African problems. However, due to weak political, economic and governance structures, these attempts have largely failed to facilitate a structural transformation of the continent and today, the African nations continue to be fragmented economies working in isolation. Therefore, in order to achieve an African resurgence, virtually all the African countries have embraced the notion of “regionalism” and “regional integration” as part of their broader aspirations towards continental integration. Over the years, various pan-African organisations have been working towards deepening economic, social and political integration in Africa. One such attempt was made at the 18th ordinary session of the African Union (AU), held in Addis Ababa in January 2012, with a decision to launch a Continental Free Trade Area (CFTA) by 2017. This was followed by eight rounds of negotiations between 2015 and 2017. A major breakthrough was achieved on 21 March 2018 when leaders from 44 African countries met in Kigali, Rwanda, and signed a framework agreement to establish what is being called one of the world’s largest trade blocs. The agreement declared that the African Continental Free Trade Area (AfCFTA) would “come into effect 30 days after ratification by the parliaments of at least 22 countries. Each country has 120 days after signing the framework to ratify the agreement”. Different Sections of the Continental Free Trade Area (CFTA) The first section of this paper discusses the objectives of the CFTA agreement and its expected benefits for the African countries. The second section describes the history of African regional integration efforts and the establishment of Regional Economic Communities (RECs) over the past decades. The third section highlights the status of intra-African trade within the eight officially recognised RECs by the African Union using the 2016 African Regional Integration Index report as reference. The fourth section charts out the earlier African initiatives aimed at enhancing regional integration, such as the New Partnership for African Development 2002, Minimum Integration Programme 2009, Boosting Intra-African Trade 2012, and Tripartite Free Trade Area 2015. The fifth section explains the opportunities for and challenges facing the AfCFTA agreement. The sixth section examines current trends in India-Africa trade and the potential impact of the AfCFTA agreement. FOR FULL ARTICLE CLICK ON THE LINK

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‘No First Use’ is not sacrosanct - EDEN IAS CURRENT AFFAIRS FOR UPSC What would be the response of India if it comes across credible intelligence that Pakistan is preparing to launch nuclear-armed missiles as a means to escalate military hostilities? Would India wait for Pakistan to undertake a nuclear first strike, possibly on a major population centre like the National Capital Region (NCR), killing a million or more, and then mobilise its second-strike forces to strike Pakistan and inflict “unacceptable damage, ” as India’s Draft Nuclear Doctrine (DND) of 1999 proclaims? Or, instead, would it undertake a pre-emptive strike – either through a conventional air strike or with nuclear-tipped short/interim-range missiles – on Pakistani bases gearing up for striking targets in India? India’s ‘No First Use’ doctrine (NFU) on the use of nuclear weapons is open for change in the future, defence minister Rajnath Singh has indicated, reflecting thinking within the establishment that no policy is writ in stone and could be modified to deal with current realities. Votaries of NFU believe that it aptly reflects India’s moralistic ethos of a peaceful nation that uses its nuclear weapons responsibly even if the posture is inconsistent with the threat environment, denoted by two nuclear-armed rivals with characteristically different postures. What is No First Use (NFU) Policy? A commitment to not be the first to use a nuclear weapon in a conflict has long been India’s stated policy. Pakistan, by contrast, has openly threatened India with the use of nuclear weapons on multiple occasions beginning from the time the two nations were not even acknowledged nuclear powers. After the 1998 nuclear test when India declared itself a nuclear weapon state, it also enunciated a doctrine of ‘no first use’ of nuclear weapons. Put simply, Indian decision-makers categorically rejected the idea of initiating the use of nuclear weapons in any conflict scenario. India’s nuclear doctrine was purely retaliatory in nature. On January 4, 2003, the Cabinet Committee on Security (CCS) met to review the progress in operationalizing the country’s nuclear doctrine. An official release issued that day summarized the decisions that were being put in the public domain. Among the major points in the doctrine was “a posture of No First Use”, which was described as follows: “Nuclear weapons will only be used in retaliation against a nuclear attack on Indian territory or on Indian forces anywhere”. However, the doctrine made it clear that India’s “nuclear retaliation to a nuclear attack strike will be massive and designed to inflict unacceptable damage”. FOR FULL ARTICLE CLICK ON THE LINK

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RBIs RESERVE AND RISKS - EDEN IAS CURRENT AFFAIRS FOR UPSC Recently the central board of the Reserve Bank of India (RBI) decided to transfer a surplus of Rs 1.76 lakh crore to the government-its highest transfer ever-sparking a fierce debate. The government was, it must be noted, acting on the recommendations of a committee chaired by former RBI governor Bimal Jalan, on capital transfer. Some economists have welcomed the move as it will help the government counter the shortfall in revenue and tax collection. Since inflationary pressure is low, economists believe that the move will not have a negative impact in the long run. Another group of economists which include the likes of Raghuram Rajan and former RBI governor Urjit Patel said earlier that the move could put RBI in a vulnerable position apart from diminishing its autonomy. What is economic capital framework? The Reserve Bank of India (RBI) has developed an Economic Capital Framework (ECF) in 2014-15 to provide an objective, rule-based, transparent methodology for determining the appropriate level of risk provisions to be made under Section 47 of the Reserve Bank of India Act, 1934. Economic capital framework refers to the risk capital required by the central bank while taking into account different risks. The economic capital framework reflects the capital that an institution requires or needs to hold as a counter against unforeseen risks or events or losses in the future. What are the Risks faced by the RBI? Market risk: which captures the risk arising out of changes in valuation of the assets of the RBI, including foreign reserves, gold and Government securities Credit risk: in the form of losses arising due to default by counterparties. Operational risk: which arises from losses incurred from inadequate or failed internal processes, people and systems; or from external events (including legal risk) Contingent risk: which arises from The RBI’s Emergency Liquidity Assistance (ELA) operations and their impact on the balance sheet size and structure (for example, losses on collateral obtained when injecting emergency liquidity into troubled banks); Inflation management operations; Currency stabilization operations. FOR FULL ARTICLE CLICK ON THE LINK

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THE YEMEN CRISIS - EDEN IAS CURRENT AFFAIRS FOR UPSC Yemen, one of the Arab world’s poorest countries, has been devastated by a civil war. The conflict has its roots in the failure of a political transition supposed to bring stability to Yemen following an Arab Spring uprising that forced its longtime authoritarian president, Ali Abdullah Saleh, to hand over power to his deputy, Abdrabbuh Mansour Hadi, in 2011. As president, Mr. Hadi struggled to deal with a variety of problems, including attacks by jihadists, a separatist movement in the south, the continuing loyalty of security personnel to Saleh, as well as corruption, unemployment and food insecurity. The Houthi movement, which champions Yemen’s Zaidi Shia Muslim minority and fought a series of rebellions against Saleh during the previous decade, took advantage of the new president’s weakness by taking control of their northern heartland of Saada province and neighbouring areas. Disillusioned with the transition, many ordinary Yemenis – including Sunnis – supported the Houthis and in late 2014 and early 2015, the rebels took over Sanaa. The political transition was supposed to bring stability to Yemen, one of the Middle East’s poorest nations but it opened an altogether new Pandora box. The Repercussions of the Transition The Houthis and security forces loyal to Saleh – which is thought to have backed its erstwhile enemies in a bid to regain power – then attempted to take control of the entire country, forcing Mr. Hadi to flee abroad in March 2015. Alarmed by the rise of a group they believed to be backed militarily by regional Shia power Iran, Saudi Arabia and eight other mostly Sunni Arab states began an air campaign aimed at restoring Mr. Hadi’s government. The coalition received logistical and intelligence support from the US, UK and France. FOR FULL ARTICLE CLICK ON THE LINK